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82

SHIPPING PRACTICE

The tanker is a vessel built specially for the carriage of
oil in bulk, molasses in bulk, and cargoes of a similar
nature. Instead of the usual holds these vessels are fitted
out with tanks for the direct reception of cargo, as may
be seen in the sketch below.

Refrigerator vessels are vessels used for the carriage of
frozen and/or chilled cargoes, such as fruit, meat, etc., and
have certain or all of their holds insulated, usually with
granulated cork, and equipped with refrigeration plant.
Vessels with small refrigeration apparatus which is only

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used when perishable cargo is offered must not be confused
with or termed refrigerator vessels.

The subject of the engines of a ship is beyond the scope of
this book, and it is sufficient to mention that propulsion of
ships is either by means of steam (this being generated by
burning coal or oil under boilers) or by internal oil com-
bustion engines. Ships with this latter type of engine are
known as motor vessels, and are on the increase. Owners
of existing coal burning steam vessels convert their ships
to oil burning for many reasons, chief among which are
the decrease of bunker space, and the increase of cargo
space, cleanliness in bunkering, and the time saved in
this operation. World supply conditions, and the shortage
of oil, or a heavy increase in price might reverse the
position.

When a steamer is bunkering as a coal burner, consider-
able coal dust is left over the ship, which means that time
is lost in clearing and cleansing, and that bunkering cannot